Kenya is bordered to the north by Sudan and Ethiopia, to the east by Somalia, to the west by Uganda, to the south by Tanzania, and to the southeast by the Indian Ocean. Much of the country, especially in the north and east, is arid or semi-arid. From the Indian Ocean the land rises gradually through dry bush to the fine arable land of the highlands.


Kenya covers an area of approximately 582,077KM2, and lies almost exactly astride the equator.


In the low-lying districts, particularly along the coast, the climate is tropical, hot and humid. On the Plateau and in the highlands the climate is more temperate. Western Kenya and most parts of Nyanza experience heavy conventional rain and have two rainy seasons, the long rains from April to June and the short rains from October to November. Kenya’s warm climate is favorable for tourism during the drier season that is between September and March.


According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Kenya’s population is estimated to have reached 47.5 million as per 2019 census. The youth (15-35 years) constitute 40% of the population. Nearly 25% of the total is concentrated in the large cities of Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu including large towns such as Nakuru. Women account for 50.48% of the total population.

Ethnic Composition

There are over 40 ethnic groups in Kenya spread across different parts of the country. Notably at the cities and major towns one may find a mix of different ethnic groups.

Principal Commercial Cities and Towns

Nairobi: This is the Kenya’s capital city. It is a dynamic city that has positioned itself as the commercial, conferencing, financial, technological and diplomatic hub in the country and within the region. It is also known as “Green City in the sun” and a cosmopolitan city with a population of nearly Five million. It is the only capital city with a National Park and boasts of hosting the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and UN Habitat.

Mombasa: It is Kenya’s main port and popular holiday city. It is situated on an island in a natural sheltered inlet. It is the only port that serves not only Kenya but land locked countries like Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and Southern Sudan.

Kisumu: It is the Chief Port city on the shores of Lake Victoria. It serves Western Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

Structure of the Kenyan Government

The 2010 Constitution established the structure of the Kenyan Government.

The Government of Kenya consists of the Executive, the Legislature, the Judiciary and the Devolved Government.

The Executive

The President, the Deputy President and the Cabinet constitute the Executive arm of the Kenyan Government.

The President is the Head of State and Government, Commander-in-Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces, and the Chairperson of the National Security Council.

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The Deputy President is the President's Principal Assistant.

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The Parliament

Kenya's Parliament consists of two houses: the National Assembly and the Senate.

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The Judiciary

The Judiciary is divided into Superior Courts and Subordinate Courts. The Superior Courts are: the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal and the High Court. The Supreme Court is the highest court in Kenya. The Subordinate Courts are: the Magistrates Courts, the Kadhi Courts, the Courts Martial and the Tribunals.

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The Devolved Government

The Kenyan Constitution established 47 Counties, each with its own Government. The County Governments consist of the County Assembly and the County Executive. The County Governor is the head of the County Executive.

The 47 Counties are as follows: Mombasa, Kwale, Kilifi, Tana River, Lamu, Taita-Taveta, Garissa, Wajir, Mandera, Marsabit, Isiolo, Meru, Tharaka-Nithi, Embu, Kitui, Machakos, Makueni, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Kirinyaga, Murang'a, Kiambu, Turkana, West Pokot, Samburu, Trans Nzoia, Uasin Gishu, Elgeyo-Marakwet, Nandi, Baringo, Laikipia, Nakuru, Narok, Kajiado, Kericho, Bomet, Kakamega, Vihiga, Bungoma, Busia, Siaya, Kisumu, Homabay, Migori, Kisii, Nyamira and Nairobi.

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